apache

yum install httpd
————————————————————————————————-
service httpd start
————————————————————————————————-
vim /var/www/html/sample.html

<head>
<body>
hello guies how are u
</body>
</head>

————————————————————————————————-

<virtualhost *:80>
documentroot /var/www/html/
directoryindex sample.html
servername mywebserver.com
</virtualhost>
————————————————————————————————–
httpd -t
————————————————————————————————–
service httpd restart
————————————————————————————————-

In browser just type server-name or ipaddress

1. What is Apache web server?
Answer : Apache web server HTTP is a most popular, powerful and Open Source to host websites on the web server by serving web files on the networks. It works on HTTP as in Hypertext Transfer protocol, which provides a standard for servers and client side web browsers to communicate. It supports SSL, CGI files, Virtual hosting and many other features.

2. How to check Apache and it’s version?
Answer : First, use the rpm command to check whether Apache installed or not. If it’s installed, then use httpd -v command to check its version.

3. Apache runs as which user? and location of main config file?.
Answer : Apache runs with the user “nobody” and httpd daemon. Apache main configuration file: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf (CentOS/RHEL/Fedora) and /etc/apache2.conf (Ubuntu/Debian).

4. On which port Apache listens http and https both?
Answer : By default Apache runs on http port 80 and https port 443 (for SSL certificate). You can also use netstat command to check ports.

5. How do you install Apache Server on your Linux machine?
Answer : Simply, you can use any package installer such as yum on (RHEL/CentOS/Fedora) and apt-get on (Debian/Ubuntu) to install Apache server on your Linux machine.

6. Where you can find all configuration directories of Apache Web Server?
Answer : By default Apache configuration directories installed under /etc/httpd/ on (RHEL/CentOS/Fedora) and /etc/apache2 on (Debian/Ubuntu).

7. Can Apache be secured with TCP wrappers?
Answer : No, It can’t be secured with the TCP wrappers since it doesn’t support libwrap.a library of Linux.

8. How to change default Apache Port and How Listen Directive works in Apache?
Answer : There is a directive “Listen” in httpd.conf file which allows us to change the default Apache port. With the help of Listen directive we can make Apache listen on different port as well as different interfaces.

9. Can we have two Apache Web servers on a single machine?
Answer : Yes, we can run two different Apache servers at one time on a Linux machine, but the condition for that is they should listen on different ports and we can change the ports with Listen directive of Apache.

10. What do you mean by DocumentRoot of Apache?
Answer : DocumentRoot in Apache means, it’s the location of web files are stored in the server, the default DocumentRoot of Apache is /var/www/html or /var/www. This can be changed to anything, by setting up “DocumentRoot” in a virtual host of configuration file of domain.

11. How to host files in different folder and what is Alias directive?
Answer : Yes, this can be achieved by Alias directive in the main Apache configuration file. Alias directive maps resources in File system, it takes a URL path and substitute it with a file or directory path on the system with is set up to redirect.
To use Alias directive, Its the part of mod_alias module of Apache. The default syntax of Alias directive is:
Alias /images /var/data/images/

12. What do you understand by “DirectoryIndex”?
Answer : DirectoryIndex is the name of first file which Apache looks for when a request comes from a domain. For example: http://www.example.com is requested by the client, so Apache will go the document root of that website and looks for the index file (first file to display).
The default setting of DirectoryIndex is .html index.html index.php, if you have different names of your first file, you need to make the changes in httpd.conf or apache2.conf for DirectoryIndex value to display that to your client browser.

13. How to disable Directory listing when an index file is missing?
Answer : If, the main index file is missing in the website root directory, then the Apache will lists all the contents like files and folder of the website on the browser instead of Main website pages.
To stop Apache directory listing, you can set the following rule in the main configuration file globally or in .htaccess file for a particular website.

<Directory /var/www/html>
Options -Indexes
</Directory>
14. What are different log files of Apache Web Server?
Answer : The default log files of Apache Web Server are access log “/var/log/httpd/access_log” and error log :/var/log/httpd/error_log”.

15. What do you understand by “connection reset by peer” in error logs?
Answer : When the server is serving any ongoing Apache request and end user terminates the connection in between, we see “connection reset by peer” in the Apache error logs.

16. What is Virtual Host in Apache?
Answer : The Virtual Host section contains the information like Website name, Document root, Directory Index, Server Admin Email, ErrorLog File location etc.
You are free to add as many directives you require for your domain, but the two minimal entries for a working website is the ServerName and DocumentRoot. We usually define our Virtual Host section at the bottom of httpd.conf file in Linux machines.
17. What’s the difference between <Location> and <Directory>?
Answer :
<Location> is used to set element related to the URL / address bar of the web server.
<Directory> refers that the location of file system object on the server

18. What is Apache Virtual Hosting?
Answer : Apache Virtual hosting is the concept of hosting multiple website on a single web server. There are two types of Virtual hosts can be setup with Apache are Name Based Virtual hosting and IP based virtual hosting.
For more information, read on How to Create Name/IP based Virtual Hosts in Apache.

19. What do you understand by MPM in Apache?
Answer : MPM stands for Multi Processing Modules, actually Apache follows some mechanism to accept and complete web server requests.

20. What is the difference between Worker and Prefork MPM?
Answer : Both MPMs, Worker and prefork has their own mechanism to work with Apache. It totally depends on you that in which mode you want to start your Apache.
Basic difference between Worker and MPM is in their process of spawning the child process. In the Prefork MPM, a master httpd process is started and this master process starts manages all other child processes to serve client requests. Whereas, In the worker MPM one httpd process is active, and it uses different threads to serve client requests.
Prefork MPM uses multiple child processes with one thread each, where worker MPM uses multiple child processes with many threads each.
Connection handling in the Prefork MPM, each process handles one connection at a time, whereas in the Worker mpm each thread handles one connection at a time.
Memory footprints Prefork MPM Large memory footprints, where Worker has smaller memory footprints.

21. What’s the use of “LimitRequestBody” and how to put limit on your uploads?
Answer : LimitRequestBody directive is used to put a limit on the upload size.
For example: I want to put limits of 100000 Bytes in the folder /var/www/html/tecmin/uploads. So, you need to add following directive in Apache configuration file.

<Directory “/var/www/html/tecmint/uploads”>
LimitRequestBody 100000
</Directory>

22. What is mod_perl and mod _php?
Answer :
mod_perl is an Apache module which is compiled with Apache for easy integration and to increase the performance of Perl scripts.
mod_php is used for easy integration of PHP scripts by the web server, it embeds the PHP interpreter inside the Apache process. Its forces Apache child process to use more memory and works with Apache only but still very popular.

23. What is Mod_evasive?
Answer : Its a third-party module which helps us to prevent your web server from the web attacks like DDOS because it performs only one task at a time and performs it very well.
For more information, read the article that guides you how to install and configure mod_evasive in Apache.

24. What is Loglevel debug in httpd.conf file?
Answer : With the help of Loglevel Debug option, we can get/log more information in the error logs which helps us to debug a problem.

25. What’s the use of mod_ssl and how SSL works with Apache?
Answer : Mod_ssl package is an Apache module, which allows Apache to establish its connection and transfer all the data in a secure encrypted environment. With the help of SSL certificates, all the Login details and other important secret details get transferred in an encrypted manner over the Internet, which prevents our data from Eavesdropping and IP spoofing.

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