Disk Partitioning and Mounting File System

[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk 

NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
└─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux

[root@partitioning ~]# df -hT
Filesystem           Type     Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2            ext4      18G  6.8G  9.8G  41% /
tmpfs                tmpfs    358M     0  358M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sda1            ext4     283M   75M  194M  28% /boot
/root/rhel-server-6.7-x86_64-dvd.iso
iso9660  3.6G  3.6G     0 100% /mnt/iso

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk /dev/sda

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
sectors (command ‘u’).

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux

Command (m for help): n
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 3
First cylinder (2350-2610, default 2350):
Using default value 2350
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (2350-2610, default 2610): +100M

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  83  Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.

[root@partitioning ~]# partprobe 
Warning: WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda (Device or resource busy).  As a result, it may not reflect all of your changes until after reboot.

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  83  Linux

[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk 
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
└─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom

[root@partitioning ~]# reboot

Broadcast message from root@partitioning
(/dev/pts/0) at 6:33 …

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
[root@partitioning ~]# Connection to 172.16.28.170 closed by remote host.
Connection to 172.16.28.170 closed.

mohammedrafi@NOC-RAFI:~$ ssh root@172.16.28.170
root@172.16.28.170’s password:
Last login: Sat Mar 26 06:25:25 2016 from 172.16.28.1

[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
└─sda3   8:3    0  104M  0 part
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk /dev/sda

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
sectors (command ‘u’).

Command (m for help): m
Command action
a   toggle a bootable flag
b   edit bsd disklabel
c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
d   delete a partition
l   list known partition types
m   print this menu
n   add a new partition
o   create a new empty DOS partition table
p   print the partition table
q   quit without saving changes
s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
t   change a partition’s system id
u   change display/entry units
v   verify the partition table
w   write table to disk and exit
x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): t
Partition number (1-4): 3
Hex code (type L to list codes): L

0  Empty           24  NEC DOS         81  Minix / old Lin bf  Solaris
1  FAT12           39  Plan 9          82  Linux swap / So c1  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
2  XENIX root      3c  PartitionMagic  83  Linux           c4  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
3  XENIX usr       40  Venix 80286     84  OS/2 hidden C:  c6  DRDOS/sec (FAT-
4  FAT16 <32M      41  PPC PReP Boot   85  Linux extended  c7  Syrinx
5  Extended        42  SFS             86  NTFS volume set da  Non-FS data
6  FAT16           4d  QNX4.x          87  NTFS volume set db  CP/M / CTOS / .
7  HPFS/NTFS       4e  QNX4.x 2nd part 88  Linux plaintext de  Dell Utility
8  AIX             4f  QNX4.x 3rd part 8e  Linux LVM       df  BootIt
9  AIX bootable    50  OnTrack DM      93  Amoeba          e1  DOS access
a  OS/2 Boot Manag 51  OnTrack DM6 Aux 94  Amoeba BBT      e3  DOS R/O
b  W95 FAT32       52  CP/M            9f  BSD/OS          e4  SpeedStor
c  W95 FAT32 (LBA) 53  OnTrack DM6 Aux a0  IBM Thinkpad hi eb  BeOS fs
e  W95 FAT16 (LBA) 54  OnTrackDM6      a5  FreeBSD         ee  GPT
f  W95 Ext’d (LBA) 55  EZ-Drive        a6  OpenBSD         ef  EFI (FAT-12/16/
10  OPUS            56  Golden Bow      a7  NeXTSTEP        f0  Linux/PA-RISC b
11  Hidden FAT12    5c  Priam Edisk     a8  Darwin UFS      f1  SpeedStor
12  Compaq diagnost 61  SpeedStor       a9  NetBSD          f4  SpeedStor
14  Hidden FAT16 ❤ 63  GNU HURD or Sys ab  Darwin boot     f2  DOS secondary
16  Hidden FAT16    64  Novell Netware  af  HFS / HFS+      fb  VMware VMFS
17  Hidden HPFS/NTF 65  Novell Netware  b7  BSDI fs         fc  VMware VMKCORE
18  AST SmartSleep  70  DiskSecure Mult b8  BSDI swap       fd  Linux raid auto
1b  Hidden W95 FAT3 75  PC/IX           bb  Boot Wizard hid fe  LANstep
1c  Hidden W95 FAT3 80  Old Minix       be  Solaris boot    ff  BBT
1e  Hidden W95 FAT1
Hex code (type L to list codes): 82
Changed system type of partition 3 to 82 (Linux swap / Solaris)

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  82  Linux swap / Solaris

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.
[root@partitioning ~]# partprobe
Warning: WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda (Device or resource busy).  As a result, it may not reflect all of your changes until after reboot.

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  82  Linux swap / Solaris


[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -s
Filename Type Size Used Priority

[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -a
swapon: /dev/sda3: swapon failed: Invalid argument

[root@partitioning ~]# mkswap /dev/sda3
Setting up swapspace version 1, size = 106424 KiB
no label, UUID=3b85701e-f66d-40ac-a6e6-d7c2ac9dd3dd

[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -s
Filename Type Size Used Priority

[root@partitioning ~]# swapon /dev/sda3


[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -s
Filename Type Size Used Priority

/dev/sda3                               partition 106424 0 -1

[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk 
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
└─sda3   8:3    0  104M  0 part [SWAP]
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom
[root@partitioning ~]# cat >> /etc/fstab
/dev/sda3 swap swap defaults 0 0

or we can use UUID=3b85701e-f66d-40ac-a6e6-d7c2ac9dd3dd instead of /dev/sda3

[root@partitioning ~]# cat /etc/fstab 
#
# /etc/fstab
# Created by anaconda on Sat Oct 24 05:43:58 2015
#
# Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under ‘/dev/disk’
# See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info
#
UUID=d74ee9d4-00d3-42d7-b4aa-494f88ddf74a /                       ext4    defaults        1 1
UUID=5402dab1-f174-41e1-a3f8-ad386c26924c /boot                   ext4    defaults        1 2
tmpfs                   /dev/shm                tmpfs   defaults        0 0
devpts                  /dev/pts                devpts  gid=5,mode=620  0 0
sysfs                   /sys                    sysfs   defaults        0 0
proc                    /proc                   proc    defaults        0 0
/root/rhel-server-6.7-x86_64-dvd.iso /mnt/iso iso9660 loop,ro   0   0

/dev/sda3 swap swap defaults 0 0

[root@partitioning ~]# mount -a

[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -a

[root@partitioning ~]# swapon -s
Filename Type Size Used Priority
/dev/sda3                               partition 106424 0 -1

[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk /dev/sda

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It’s strongly recommended to
switch off the mode (command ‘c’) and change display units to
sectors (command ‘u’).

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  82  Linux swap / Solaris

Command (m for help): n
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)
4
Invalid partition number for type `4′
Command action
e   extended
p   primary partition (1-4)
e
Selected partition 4
First cylinder (2364-2610, default 2364):
Using default value 2364
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (2364-2610, default 2610):
Using default value 2610

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4            2364        2610     1984027+   5  Extended

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

WARNING: Re-reading the partition table failed with error 16: Device or resource busy.
The kernel still uses the old table. The new table will be used at
the next reboot or after you run partprobe(8) or kpartx(8)
Syncing disks.

[root@partitioning ~]# partprobe 
Warning: WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda (Device or resource busy).  As a result, it may not reflect all of your changes until after reboot.
[root@partitioning ~]#
[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
└─sda3   8:3    0  104M  0 part [SWAP]
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom
[root@partitioning ~]# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 2610 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0009149c

Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1   *           1          39      307200   83  Linux
Partition 1 does not end on cylinder boundary.
/dev/sda2              39        2350    18566144   83  Linux
/dev/sda3            2350        2363      106429+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda4            2364        2610     1984027+   5  Extended

[root@partitioning ~]# partprobe
Warning: WARNING: the kernel failed to re-read the partition table on /dev/sda (Device or resource busy).  As a result, it may not reflect all of your changes until after reboot.

[root@partitioning ~]# reboot 

Broadcast message from root@partitioning
(/dev/pts/0) at 7:09 …

The system is going down for reboot NOW!
[root@partitioning ~]# Connection to 172.16.28.170 closed by remote host.
Connection to 172.16.28.170 closed.

mohammedrafi@NOC-RAFI:~$ ssh root@172.16.28.170
root@172.16.28.170’s password:
Last login: Sat Mar 26 06:51:00 2016 from 172.16.28.1

[root@partitioning ~]# lsblk
NAME   MAJ:MIN RM  SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
loop0    7:0    0  3.6G  1 loop /mnt/iso
sda      8:0    0   20G  0 disk
├─sda1   8:1    0  300M  0 part /boot
├─sda2   8:2    0 17.7G  0 part /
├─sda3   8:3    0  104M  0 part [SWAP]
└─sda4   8:4    0    1K  0 part 
sr0     11:0    1 1024M  0 rom

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